The output of the flowmeter, which is proportional to the first moment of the Doppler power spectrum and hence mean blood velocity is linear from 1.3 to over 50 cm s -1 for pulsatile flow. Variation in vessel diameter and angle of insonation, which are the common sources of error in Doppler flowmetry, are minimised by constraining the vessel in a plastic cuff which fixes the probe angle at 50deg. A simple gauge is used to compress the vessel flat, before the cuff is applied, to measure the wall thickness to within 0.25 mm. The vessel internal diameter and hence blood flow can then be calculated using an experimentally determined calibration factor to compensate for non-even insonation. A range of sterilizable cuffs from 3-12 mm diameter have been built and the flowmeter is now being used routinely during all arterial reconstructive surgery.